HUMANITIES WEST PRESENTS
Venice to Xanadu:
Marco Polo’s Silk Road
MAY 4 AND 5 , 2001 HERBST THEATRE, SAN FRANCISCO
presented in cooperation with the Silhroad Foundation,
Center for the Pacific Rim of the University of San Francisco and its Ricci Institute,
The Italian Cultural Institute, and the Mechanics’ Institute Library
'Venice to Xanadu: Marco Polo’s Silk Road
FRIDAY, MAY 4 VENICE TO XANADU
8:00 pm (performance) Uzkeki Dance LAUREL VICTORIA GRAY (Silk Road Dance Company,
8:10 PM (lecture) Rediscovering the Silk Road The "Silk Road," so named only in the nineteenth
century, was a web of dozens of unpaved routes connecting India and China with the Mediterranean and
Europe. Marco Polo traveled across one vast Mongol-ruled territory. Today it is divided into thirteen
countries and many more cultural zones. S. FREDERICK STARR (The Nitze School Central Asian Institute,
lohns Hopkins University) assesses how the legacy of the past will affect its prospects for the future.
9:00 PM Intermission
9: 1 5 PM (performance) Musical Legacies of the Silk Road (SEE INSERT)
9: 1 5 PM Music From Marco Polo’s Venice ROY WHELDEN (vielle), PETER MAUND (percussion),
CHERYL ANN FULTON (medieval harp)
9:35 PM Azerbaijani Dance LAUREL VICTORIA GRAY (Silk Road Dance Company)
9:40 PM Music from Medieval China and Mongolia WANG HONG and ZHAO YANG-OIN (Melody
10:00 PM Throat Singing From Tuva: PAUL PENA
SATURDAY, MAY 5 MARCO POLO'S SILK ROAD
10:00 am (lecture) Mummies to Marco Polo: Perspectives on the Silk Road DR. ALBERT E. DIEN (Stanford
University) surveys the territory through which the Silk Road passes, where influences of the great civilizations
of the East and West — China, India, Rome and Byzantium — mixed with the native ways of life to produce a
hybrid, eclectic mix of religions, cultures and artistic traditions. We view early Bronze Age mummies, the
beginnings of the Silk Road, the emergence of oasis kingdoms, and the eventual decline and isolation of that
area as sea trade replaced camel caravans.
11:10am (lecture) Marco Polo and other Early Travelers to China PROFESSOR MORRIS ROSSABI
(Columbia University): The thirteenth-century Mongols expedited and encouraged trade and travel between
East and West, permitting Western merchants, craftsmen, and envoys, for the first time, to journey to China
and Mongolia. Colorful and lively accounts include the writings about and of the famous Venetian merchant
Marco Polo, missionaries john of Plano Carpini and William of Rubruck, and craftsman Guillaume Boucher.
Rabban Sauma, a "reverse Marco Polo," was a missionary/diplomat from China who met with the Pope and
the Kings of England and France.
Noon-1 :30 pm Break for Lunch
1:30 PM (lecture/performance) Costume and Dance from Central Asia LAUREL VICTORIA GRAY (Silk
Road Dance Company) presents sumptuous costuming and spirited dance traditions of Silk Road cultures.
Historically accurate Azerbaijani, Kurdish, and Bukharan costumes include authentic embroidery and
weaving Ms. Gray collected on her travels to the East and reflect painstaking efforts to preserve traditional
dress in the face of rapid change due to exposure to the West.
2:35 PM Break
2:45 PM (lecture) The Exchange of Princely Gifts Across the Silk Road LAUREN ARNOLD (research
associate, Ricci Institute of the Center for the Pacific Rim, University of San Francisco): Medieval diplomats
and merchants alike would give and receive lavish gifts as they established foreign contact. Marco Polo
presented "fine vessels of crystal and other things" to Khubilai Khan. Franciscan monks followed in the
trader's footsteps at the Yuan court. The princely gifts that were exchanged, and artistic influences, can be
detected in paintings from both China and the West.
3:30 PM Stretch break
3:35 pm (panel discussion) Did Marco Polo really reach China? DR. )OHN M. SMITH (U.C. Berkeley)
Musical Legacies of the Silh Road
May 4, 2001
1 . Musfc From Marco Polo's Venice
Roy Whelden (vielle), Peter Maund (percussion), Cheryl Ann Fulton (medieval harp)
Lamento de Tristano & La Rotta Anonymous, London, Brit. Lib. Add. Ms 29987
Via bombyci arr CAF
Lauda selections Anonymous Italian, 13th century
In Pro Anonymous, London, Brit. Lib. Add. Ms 29987
The middle point of Marco Polo's life falls on one of the landmark dates of European music history^: the
beginning circa 1300 of the ars nova. The musicians of the ars nova explored new territory in the fields of
rhythm, meter and polyphony. Interestingly, Italy, and Venice in particular, seem to have been a generation
behind western Europe in the development of this new music.
The ars nova drew away from the tradition of monophonic music. Composers turned away from the
antiquated traditions of the 13th century (troubadour, trouvere, cantiga, lauda) to concentrate on polyphony.
But not, immediately, in Italy. The production of lauda (devotional songs) continued in Italy well past that
landmark date of 1300.
While it is easy to point out the landmarks in the history of music from the perspective of seven centuries, in
fact, the demarcation of musical styles is fuzzy. A case in point is the (predominately) monophonic dance
form known as estampie (France) or istampitta (Italy). The earliest examples come from the middle of the
13th century in manuscripts of French provenance (Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, fonds frangais 844)
The latest examples, written in ars nova rhythmic notation, are from 14th century' Italian manuscripts
(London, British Library, Additional 29987). It is not surprising, perhaps, to find the monophonic tradition
surviving as dance music. The practitioners of dance music would often be the jongluers (instrumentalists),
a class of musicians who learned and transmitted their art by oral tradition-a kind of music making that
tends to be conservative.
We have combined these different traditions (lauda and istampitta) to give a representative sample of Italian
music in the early 14th century. We offer four instrumental dances. The first is based on the lauda Gloria in
cielo (performed instrumentally), which is then turned into an istampitta (specifically, into an istampitta and
rotta — a characteristically Italian arrangement; the rotta is a fast variation on the ]ust heard istampitta). We
perform two 14th century dances from the 29987 manuscript: Lamento de Tristano and In Pro. The first of
these is another istampitta- rotta pair. The second is a single istampitta, but one of very complex structure
and character. The remaining piece, Via bombyci, is our own construction. There are only two or three dozen
extant medieval instrumental pieces. Modern musicians wishing to play medieval music are often forced to
write it themselves, either using fragments of 13th and 14th century music (the istampitta Gloria in cielo is
based not only on the lauda Gloria in cielo but on fragments of orphaned lauda) or composing the music
from whole cloth, using one’s knowledge of the extant examples.
|A final note: istampitta Gloria in cielo was written and performed by |ann Cosart and the ensemble Altramar.
With their permission, we transcribed the music from their Dorian Recording Nova Stella. This felt fair, since
Altramar has been using one of our pieces for years-Le premier estampie, which we reconstructed from a
fragment in fonds frangais 844.1
2. Dance From Central Asia
Laurel Victoria Gray
lim Grippo (Kanun and oud); Susan Rudnicki (doire and tombak ). Amy Cyr (nay)
8:00 PM MUNODZHAT
Munodzhat is a lament to God and the title of a poem by 1 5th century poet Alisher Navoi. The dance itself,
set to classical Uzbek music, can be interpreted on two levels. One is the stor>' of a young woman who is
forbidden to marry the man she loves. She prays for her deliverance from this situation and, in her despair,
hallucinates, thinking she sees her beloved before her. She dances ioyously, only to realize that the
apparition is just that — an illusion. She then surrenders to her fate. On a spiritual plane, Munodzhat
symbolizes the search for the “beloved/’ the Sufi allegory for union with the divine.
Choreography by People’s Artist of Uzbekistan, Ishar Akilov
9:35 PM THE DANCER OF SHAMAKHA
This dance is based on the eponymous book by Armen Ohanian, who describes her life at the beginning of
the twentieth century in the Caucasus and Persia. The town of Shamakha, now part of Azerbaijan, was
famous for two things — silk and dancing girls. “Glorious in all Asia Minor" Ohanain explained, “these dancers
wandered from city to city, kindling all hearts with the music of their tinkling ornaments. . .Goddesses with
languid eyes, in which smoldered the fires of all human passions, bodies trembling, waving delicate veils."
The music is a traditional Azerbaijani wedding dance melody, and the costume is based on a 19th century
watercolor of a dancer from Shamakha.
Choreography by Laurel Victoria Gray
3. Melody of China
Wang Hong (multi instruments) and Zhao Yangqin (yangqin)
Horse Racing (Mongolia)
Lanterns Festival (North China)
Joyful Xinjiang People
(Northwest China — Uighur area)
Music by Hai Huai
Erhu solo; Wang Hong
Bahn solo: Wang Hong
Traditional, arranged by Zhao Deming
yangqin solo: Zhao Yangqin
dapu (hand drum): Wang Hong
Har^dan Sanffarkand^ ^
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a . Lake Baike^
^ ^ Kashgar ) j>-4LHamr
A PARTIAL TIMELINE OF THE SiLK ROAD UP TO THE TIME OF MaRCO POLO
3200 Bc Horse domesticated on south Russian Steppe
3000 BC Silk first produced in China
2500 BC Domestication of the Bactrian and Arabian camel, vital
for desert travel
900 BC Spread of mounted nomadism
753 BC Rome founded
400 BC Empire of Alexander the Great expands into Asia
300 BC Roman expansion begins
Parthians establish their empire in Iran
Qin dynasty unites China for the first time
200 BC Han power reaches Tarim region. The Silk Road under
China's control and the route to the West now open.
100 BC Mithridates, Parthian king, sends ambassadors to both
Sulla and Wu-ti to provide an important link
between Rome and China.
1 AD Silk first seen in Rome
Kushan Empire of Central Asia. Sogdians trading on
Chinese General Pan Ch’ao defeats Xiongnu and keeps
the peace in the Tarim Basin. The stability of the
silk road popularizes the caravan trades into two
routes — north and south.
China sends the first ambassador to Rome from Pan
Ch’ao’s command, but he fails to reach Rome.
Graeco-Egyptian geographer, Claudius Ptolemy, writes
his Geography, attempts to map the Silk road.
100 AD Rome sends the first Roman envoy by sea to China;
Roman Empire at its largest and a major market for
The four great empires of the day — the Roman,
Parthian, Kushan, and Chinese — bring stability to
the Silk Road.
200 AD Silk is woven into cloth across Asia, but using Chinese
Han dynasty ends, China fragmented.
300 AD Constantinople becomes Rome’s capital. Roman
Empire splits in two.
Dun Huang caves start to appear.
Fa-hsien, a Buddhist monk, and one of the first
known Chinese Silk Road travellers sets out to
India by foot.
A Chinese princess smuggles some silkworm eggs out
of China. Silkworm farms appear in Central Asia.
500 AD Silkworm farms appear in Europe.
Nestorian Christians reach China.
Split of the Turkish Kaganate into Eastern and Western
Kaganates. Western Turks move to Central Asia
from Mongolian Plateau. At the Chinese end of
Central Asia, the Eastern Turks or Uighurs are in
control. Sui Dynasty reunites China.
600 AD Roman Empire becomes Byzantine Empire
For the first two centuries, the Silk Road reaches its
golden age. China very open to foreign cultural
Islamic religion founded; Sassanian P^ia falls to the
Arabs; Muslims control Mesopotamia and Iran,
along with the Silk and Spice routes.
700 AD Arabs conquer Spain in Europe, which introduces
Eastern technology and science to Europe.
Arabs defeat Chinese at Talas — papermaking
introduced to West; Tang dynasty begins to decline,
and with it, the Silk Road.
800 AD Venice established as a city-state.
Gunpowder invented in China.
1 100 AD Genghis Khan unites Mongols, expansion of Mongol
Silk production and weaving established in Italy.
1200 AD Genghis Khan dies; Friar Giovanni Carpini leaves Rome
for Mongol capital at Karakorum. Friar William
Rubruck sent to Karakorum by the King of France;
Silk Road trade prospers again under the "Pax
Mongolica"; Kublai Khan defeats China and
establishes the Yuan dynasty.
Marco Polo leaves for the East.
1300 AD Turkish Ottoman Empire in power; Tamerlane with
capital in Samarkand rises and conquers Persia,
parts of Russia and northern India
Third silk road route appears in the north; Ibn Battuta,
the first known Arab travels on a journey to China
via the Silk Road.
The Black Death spreads throughout Europe
Mongol Yuan Dynasty collapses.
1400 AD Death of Tamerlane leads to the decline of Mongol
power; Ottomans conquer Constantinople.
Fearing the power of Uighurs, Ming China reduces the
trade and traffic dramatically on the Silk Road.
The Silk Road comes to an end for purposes of silk;
Lyon becomes the new center of the silk trade.
1800 AD German scholar, Baron Ferdinand von Richthofen uses
the term "Silk Road" (Seidenstrasse) for the first time.
Thanks to Albert Dien, Adela Lee and Pat Bassett.
BIOGRAPHIES “VENICE TO XANADU”
LAUREN ARNOLD'S academic background is in medieval
history and art history, with degrees from the University of
Michigan. Her professional background includes museum
administrator, book editor, and manager of an art gallery.
Princely Gifts and Papal Treasures: The Franciscan Mission to China
and its Influence on the Art of the West 1250-1350 was published by
the Ricci Institute for Chinese-Western Cultural History, part
of the Center for the Pacific Rim at the University of San
Francisco, in 1999. She and a colleague rediscovered the
painting of the "Heavenly Horse," thought to have been lost
for over two hundred years.
ALBERT DIEN attended Washington University, the Univer-
sity of Chicago, and the University of California, Berkeley; his
degrees are all from the latter. He has taught at the University
of Hawaii, Columbia University and Stanford. Since retiring
from Stanford seven years ago he has been to China as a
member of delegations, attending conferences, leading tours,
and for his own research. He is at present completing a volume
on the material culture of the Early Medieval period in Chinese
history (220-589 ad). He has participated in conferences in
China at Dunhuang (1994) and at Kucha (1977) and taught a
month-long workshop for 30 students at Dunhuang (1998).
LAUREL VICTORIA GRAY has taught and performed
throughout North America, Europe, Central Asia, and Australia.
Specializing in the cultures of the Silk Road, Ms. Gray has
traveled to Uzbekistan ten times, living there for two years.
She has taught at George Mason University, the Iranian
Community School, and has lectured at the Middle East Insti-
tute, UCLA, Occidental College, and other universities. Her
research articles have appeared in the Oxford University Press
international Encyclopedia of Dance, the Wor/cf Encyclopedia of
Contemporary Theatre. Dance Magazine, and numerous Middle
Eastern dance publications. She was the recipient of the 1999
International Academy of Middle Eastern Dance Award for
Ethnic Dance. Ms. Gray currently teaches at loy of Motion in
MORRIS ROSSABI, born in Alexandria, Egypt, moved to the
U.S. when he was ten years old. His Ph.D. is in Chinese and
Inner Asian history from Columbia University. He is author of
Kfiubilai Khan: His Life and Times (University of California Press,
China Among Equals (University of California Press), Voyager from
Xanadu (Kodansha), Bounty from the Sheep (Cambridge Press),
and other books and articles, including the essays on China’s
relations with Inner Asia in all volumes of the Cambridge
History of China. 1200-1800. He contributed catalog essays for
exhibitions at the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco (1995)
Metropolitan Museum of Art (1998 and 2001). He is on the
Board of Advisors of the Soros Foundation projects on
Central Asia and a recent recipient of Soros Foundation
Individual Project Fellowship. He is currently Professor of
Chinese and Inner Asian History at City University of New
York and Columbia University.
JOHN MASSON SMITH, JR. is Professor emeritus. History
Department, University of California, Berkeley. He studied at
Harvard (AB) and Columbia (MA, PhD) and taught Middle
Eastern and Inner Asian history at Berkeley, 1962-93. His
research has centered on imperial Mongol history (thirteenth
and fourteenth centuries). He has written many articles on
Mongol coinage, demography, diet, logistics, strategy, tactics
and weaponry — e.g. "Dietary Decadence and Dynastic Decline
in the Mongol Empire," journal of Asian History. 34 (2000). He
has traveled for research in most of the Middle East, to con-
ferences in Russia and Mongolia, on tour in Uzbekistan, and
passing through Beijing.
S. FREDERICK STARR, a historian, educator, musicologist
and jazz musician, taught at Princeton and founded the
Kennan Institute in Washington before serving as Vice Presi-
dent of Tulane University and, for eleven years, President of
Oberlin College. He now chairs the Central Asia-Caucasus
Institute of the Nitze School. Johns Hopkins University in
Washington DC, and is planning a new university for the Aga
Khan. Starr took part in the October 2000 Humanities West
program Nw Orleans 1900 as a speaker and a jazz clarinetist.
CHERYL ANN FULTON is America’s premier performer of
historical harps as well as an inspiring and popular performer
of Celtic and contemporary music on lever harp. Her first solo
album. The Airs of Wales, performed on an original Welsh triple
harp, brought her international recognition. A member of
Ensemble Alcatraz, she has performed and recorded with
many of today’s leading early music ensembles in the US and
abroad. Her medieval harp choir, Angelorum, performed on
the latest Ensemble Alcatraz CD Cantigas de Amigo. Dr. Fulton
holds a D.M. in early music from Indiana University.
A native of San Francisco, PETER MAUND studied per-
cussion at the San Francisco Conservatory of Music; tabla
at the Ali Akbar College of Music; and music, folklore, and
ethnomusicology at the University of California, Berkeley
(A.B., M.A.). As a Ph.D candidate at Berkeley, he specialized in
the music of north India. He has performed and recorded with
various early music, contemporary music, and world music
ensembles throughout North America, the U.K. and Europe, in-
cluding Alasdair Fraser’s group Skyedance, Davka, Chanticleer,
Ensemble Project Ars Nova, Paul Hillier, Quaternaria, and
While searching for a language program on short-wave radio,
singer/songwriter PAUL PENA chanced to hear throat-singers
from Tuva. Fascinated, the blind singer first searched for
someone to explain what he had heard, then taught himself
the technique. A touring throat-singer invited him to visit
Tuva and participate in a competition. Pena, accompanied by
an independent film maker, went and won the competition.
The resulting documentary, "Genghis Blues" was nominated
for an Academy Award in 1999. The attention has sparked a
new interest in an album from 1973 that was never released.
"New Train" was released in 2000 and has won much praise.
Born in Massachusetts to a family with roots in Cape Verde,
Africa, Pena studied flamenco guitar in Spain and Portugal.
He has learned Cape Verde Creole, Spanish, Korean, Chinese,
lapanese and a little Tuvan.
WANG HONG is a member of Chinese Nationalities Orchestra
Society, Artistic Director of Melody of China, a music
educator, composer and performing artist. Under the sponsor-
ships of world music festivals he has performed and lectured
in Europe and the Far East. Wang Hong is a graduate of
Nanjing Normal University’s Music Department where he
studied er-hu (Chinese fiddle) and Huqin (Chinese 2-stringed
instruments). He is a member of the Chinese National
Orchestra Society, the Chinese Musicians Association, and
former Board Director of the Chinese Wind Instruments
Society. At present, he is a Chinese instruments instructor at
Laney College at Oakland, San Francisco Community Music
School and active participant in the educational program
Young Imaginations in Marin County.
ROY WHELDEN, a trumpet player from the age of seven
and cellist from twelve, discovered the viola da gamba while
a graduate student in music theory. Studies of the gamba
and medieval vielle eventually led to a D.M. from Indiana
University. Whelden has performed and recorded with ensem-
bles from around the United States and Europe, including
Sequentia and Ensemble Alcatraz. Since 1986, he has per-
formed with American Baroque and recorded with them his
own compositions: Galax and Like a Passing River. A recipient of
a grant from California Arts Council in the year 2000, Whelden’s
current compositional projects include the completion of a
multi-movement work titled journeys.
ZHAO YANG-QIN is the hammered dulcimer soloist of
Melody of China and member of Chinese Nationalities
Orchestra Society. Prophetically named, she has established
herself as one of the foremost yangqin (Chinese dulcimer)
performers in the world, having been elected to the presti-
gious Chinese Musicians Association and the Chinese
Nationalities Orchestra Society. In 1982, she graduated with
honors from Nanjing Normal University’s Music Department
and eventually became head of the faculty of instrumental
music of that university. Ms. Zhao has been invited to perform
and lecture throughout the world.
0^ ^ 0^
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MICHELANGELO’S WORLD OCTOBER 12-13, 2001
A giant of the Italian Renaissance, indeed of Western civilization, Michelangelo Buonarroti has left an unparalleled
legacy of brilliant, highly personal art, architecture, and poetry. His frescoes in the Vatican Palace and his architecture
and sculpture for St. Peter's Basilica have linked the name of this passionate Florentine patriot inextricably with the
Eternal City of the popes, where he spent nearly half of his eighty-nine years. Excellent speakers will reexamine some of
il divino Michelangelo’s greatest works in light of stimulating recent scholarly and scientific discoveries. A program of
secular and sacred music enriches the cultural, political, and religious backdrop of Renaissance Rome.
ONE HUNDRED YEARS IN BARCELONA FEBRUARY 8-9, 2002
Barcelona stands unique among the great cities of the world. Its cultural singularity is owed to Catalan pride; its beacon
to the traveler is manmade beauty against a landscape blessed by sun, wind and sea. The journey into Barcelona's past
begins with the story of the fiercely independent Catalonian spirit, captured by traditional Catalan music Friday
evening. Saturday, experts explore the mid- 1800s to the early 20th century, when the beautiful medieval city was trans-
formed by visionary urban planners. They view with us the city of art nouveau through works of the writers, artists, and
architects who called Barcelona home. Highlighted is the incomparable architecture of master Antoni Gaudi.
ANCIENT EGYPT: SPLENDORS OF THE NEW KINGDOM MAY 3 1-lUNE 1 . 2002
Europeans rediscovered ancient Egypt after the incursion of Napoleon. In the nineteenth century, the unearthing of the
Rosetta Stone and the magnificent artifacts of King 'Tutankamon's tomb lure writers and artists as well as archeologists
to Egypt. Friday evening’s program reveals how ancient Egypt inspired and transformed Western art, from furniture, archi-
tecture and design to the operas of Giuseppe Verdi. Saturday, distinguished speakers from across the country illuminate
the lives and beliefs of the great pharoahs; view glorious architecture, art and technology of the realm 3500 years ago;
and show exciting recent excavations on the Nile.
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Humanities West or renew your annual contribution by filling out the DONOR section below. Non-donor orders will be processed
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which you belong,
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tising in the
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Owned and operated by the City & County of San Francisco
through the Board of Trustees of the War Memorial.
The Honorable Willie L. Brown, Ir., Mayor
Thomas E. Horn, President, Claude M. Jarman, Jr., Vice
President, Armen Baliantz, Wilkes Bashford, Nancy H.
Bechtle, Bella Farrow, Mrs. Walter A. Haas, Jr., Chrysanthy
Leones, Mrs. George R. Moscone, Irene Jung Roth,
Charlotte Mailliard Shultz
Elizabeth Murray, Managing Director
Gregory P. Ridenour, Assistant Managing Director
A Sennheiser Listening System is installed at Herbst Theatre.
Wireless headphones and induction devices (adaptable to
hearing aids) are available in the main lobby of the theatre.
There is no charge, but an ID deposit is required.
PATRONS, ATTENTION PLEASE! FIRE NOTICE:
THERE ARE SUFFICIENT EXITS IN THIS BUILDING TO
ACCOMMODATE THE ENTIRE AUDIENCE. THE EXIT
INDICATED BY THE LIGHTED "EXIT” SIGN NEAREST
YOUR SEAT IS THE SHORTEST ROUTE TO THE STREET.
IN CASE OF FIRE PLEASE DO NOT RUN— WALK
THROUGH THAT EXIT.
57 Post Street, Suite 814
San Francisco, CA 94104
Spring 2001 « exploring history to celebrate the mind and the arts »
VENICE TO XANADU:
MARCO POLO’S SILK ROAD
May 4 and 5 , 2001
Merest Theatre, San Francisco.
presented in cooperation with the The Silkroad Foundation,
University of San Francisco, Center for the Pacific Rim and Its Ricci Institute,
the Italian Cultural Institute and the Mechanics’ Institute Library
"... there never was a man, be he Christian or Saracen or Tartar or Heathen, who ever travelled over so much of the world as did that noble and illustrious
citizen of the City of Venice, Messr Marco the son of Messr Nico/o Polo."
— The Book of Ser Marco Polo the Venetian Concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East.
The name "Silk Road," Seidenstrassen, was first applied by the
19th century German geographer, Ferdinand von Richthofen,
(yes, uncle to the infamous Red Baron) to this trade route of
antiquity. Both Greeks and Romans referred to China as 'Seres’,
and it is from this that the word silk is derived.
The Silk Road was in actuality a network of routes evolving
over centuries, but it was in essence a trade route linking the
East with the West, a journey of about 7,000 miles. Silk was the
main export from China, sought by the Romans for their "glass
togas" and driving the trade routes extensions until the secret
of making the fine silk thread and cloth was transferred to
Europe via Byzantium. Once the secret itself travelled the trail.
Continued on Page 6
. . Lake Balkaih'
^ Kashgar )
THE SILK ROAD THEN AND NOW
FRIDAY EVENING, S. Frederick Starr discusses life in the thirteen countries crossed by the Silk Road today.
Fred Starr, Chairman of the Central Asia Studies Center of the Nitze Institute of lohns Hopkins
University, was the very popular Saturday afternoon lecturer and guest clarinetist at HW’s
"New Orleans" program in October. SATURDAY, travel across Asia and back in time with
distinguished scholars. From medieval Venice all the way to Cathay, the wondrous exotic trails
still have the power to draw us.
FRIDAY EVENING, enjoy music from Marco Polo's Venice and across Central Asia, culminating
in world music master Paul Pena's performance of Tuvan throat-singing, an ancient art that now
captivates audiences in the West as well as East.
VENICE TO XANADU IN MUSIC
See HW advance ticket purchase order form, page 7
Friends of HW Special Events
Save tfie Datesl
Pre-Program Stops on the Silh Road
WEDNESDAY, MARCH 28 7:30 pm
Music of Venice
at Old St. Mark's Cathedral
The Italian Cultural Institute presents
Quartetto d’Arcfii di Venezia in concert,
music by Boccerini, Malipiero, Maderna
and Verdi. $10 Friends of HW, $15 gen-
eral public. St. Mary’s Cathedral, 1111
Gough Street (at Geary), San Francisco.
Tickets and reservations 415/788-7142.
THURSDAY, APRIL 12 6:00 pm-7:30 pm
Three Cities of the Silh Road
loin us for a slide-illustrated talk by
Frank Rettenberg, who recently returned
from a tour of Central Asia. He is a
retired foreign service officer and
member of the World Affairs Council and
HW Board of Directors. Mechanics'
Institute, 57 Post Street 4th Floor. FREE
to Friends of HW; $5 for the general
public. RESERVATIONS REQUIRED
TUESDAY, APRIL 17 6:00 pm-7:30 pm
This slide-illustrated journey to Tuva
includes a live demonstration of throat-
singing and the musical instrument the
Igil. Presenters Seth Quittner and Lemon
DeGeorge will describe music and
musicians of 'Tuva; the Tuvan country-
side, people and culture; and Tuvan
shamanism. They include personal
accounts about the Bai-Taiga region,
where both of them spent time living
with nomads in yurts.
Lemon DeGeorge is a Bay Area musi-
cian and recording engineer. He was
one of the main characters in the Qscar-
nominated film “Genghis Blues," as
well as the sound recordist on location
in Tuva. DeGeorge recorded and co-
produced the CD "Genghis Blues" in his
studio in San Francisco. Seth Augustus
Quittner is a Bay Area musician and
graphic designer. He first heard
throatsinging in 1998, soon became a
student of Paul Pena's and has since
studied with several Tuvan Masters. He
does four styles of throatsinging and
plays the Igil, a 2-stringed, bowed Tuvan
This program is FREE and open to the
public. San Francisco Main Library Koret
Auditorium (Grove and Larkin streets).
Presented in cooperation with the San
Francisco Public Library. Seating is unre-
served. For information call 415/391-9700.
Message from the Chair
Dear Friends of Humanities West:
Congratulations to all connected with Rome in the Year One. It was one of our
most successful programs in recent years, and we are especially grateful to
Diane Middlebrook, a member of our Advisory Council, for her work in
organizing and moderating this excellent program.
Now that we have studied life in Ancient Rome, it is time to turn our
attention to the Silk Road. Venice to Xanadu: Marco Polo’s Silk Road is the final pro-
gram in our seventeenth season, and it allows us to link two areas — Venice and
Asia — that have each been the subject of several Humanities West programs
over the years. Like many of our presentations, the Silk Road program repre-
sents the flowering of an idea that has been under discussion for some time.
Special thanks go to Charles Bowman, our Secretary/Treasurer and a member
of our Board, for his efforts in organizing this program.
1 am also pleased to report that we received an enthusiastic response to the
program preference survey that was distributed at the Year Qne program. As
experienced attendees of our programs know, we distribute these surveys only
once every two years, and we give them great weight in planning our programs.
Although a three-line description can only begin to do justice to most of the
program ideas, 1 think the survey conveyed a good sense of how rich many
of the 14 program ideas could be. We will be using the survey results as we
begin to plan the programs for our nineteenth season, which will begin in the
Fall of 2002.
Finally, as you now know from Nancy Buffum's letter, she will be leaving her
post as Executive Director at the end of our current fiscal year to spend more
time with her young family. Nancy has served as our Executive Director for
nearly seven years, and we deeply appreciate the skill, energy, tact and tenacity
that she has brought to her work. We are now in the midst of searching for a
new Executive Director, and we recognize that the challenge of recruiting an
equally able successor will be substantial. Qn the other hand, we also know that
Humanities West has a track record of presenting excellent programs and
enjoys widespread audience support, and we are sure that those things will help
us in attracting excellent candidates.
HW seeks Executive Director
The Board of Directors is recruiting a new Executive Director for
Humanities West, a 17-year-old non profit presenter of public cultural
programs with an annual budget of $220K. The Executive Director is
responsible for program development, production and marketing;
audience and resource development; management and budget
administration. He/she works closely with the Board of Directors, and
is assisted by the Associate Director, Advisory Council, contractors and
volunteers. Required: mature, creative individual with excellent verbal
and writing skills, able to adhere to tight performance deadlines; proven
record of achievement in the arts and humanities. Salary commensurate
with experience. Cover letter and resume to: Search Committee.
Humanities West 57 Post Street #8 1 4, SF, CA 94 1 04.
« 2 »
Message from the Executive Director
Humanities West, Future Vision
There is much to look forward to at Humanities West. Vemce To Xanadu: Marco Polo's
Silk Road (May 4 and 5 at Herbst Theatre) has been long awaited by many of us.
Next year's season includes three programs audience members rated highly on
the 1999 audience survey: Michelangelo, Barcelona, and ancient Egypt. As the
future program survey at 'Rome' indicates, there is no shortage of topics in the
history of arts and ideas to bring humanities lovers to Herbst Theatre for many
years to come.
1 am especially pleased that with the help of local colleges and universities,
the California Classical Association, the San Francisco Unified School District,
and you, donors to Humanities West, that more teachers and students are now
coming to HW programs. HW continues to do our part to foster an informed,
intellectually curious citizenry and offer a public place for exploring history to
celebrate the mind and the arts.
1 would like to see a full theater every program, with Friends of HW subscribing
and bringing your friends; cooperating institutions introducing new audiences
to our programs; and a portion of the seats reserved for students and educators.
As you see from the notice of a search for a new Executive Director, 1 am
leaving my position this summer, after this my seventh season. 1 look forward
to spending more time with my children. I also look forward to staying active
with Humanities West, where 1 have learned so much and made so many friends.
I'll see you at Herbst Theatre!
HW Board Notes
We would like to welcome longtime HW donor and season subscriber lay Wiener
to the HW Board of Directors. Jay Wiener is a lawyer in San Francisco. He received
his B.A. in History from Reed College and his ).D. from the University of Mississippi,
his home state. In addition to his interest in art, literature, and music, he is an
accomplished mountain climber and cross-country skier, just this year becoming a
World Loppet Master, upon his completing his tenth international cross-country
ski marathon. Jay's primary civic involvement, at present, is the organization of an
international architectural competition, through the San Francisco Museum of Modern
Art, to investigate how ecological requirements and new technologies will reshape
WEDNESDAY, April 4 5:45 pm
Orville Schell (journalist and Dean of the
Graduate School of Journalism at U.C.
Berkeley) in an armchair interview with
Marsha Vande Berg (Editor, Tfie World
Report) "Focus on U.S.-China relations on
the eve of China's accession to the WTO."
APRIL 11,2001 5:45 pm
"Korea: Asia's New Miracle in the 21st
Century" a talk by Dr. Patrick Lloyd
Cooperating Institution Events
Hatcher (Kiriyama Distinguished Scholar-
in-Residence at the University of San
Francisco Center for the Pacific Rim).
Both events take place at University of
San Francisco, Lone Mountain Campus,
Room 100, 2800 Turk Street (between
Masonic & Parker) and are co-sponsored
by University of San Francisco Center
for the Pacific Rim and Its Ricci Insti-
tute and the Commonwealth Club of
Many thanks to these generous 2000
Appeal donors, whose donations in part
support the young scholars program.
James ].& Caroline Boitano
Joseph Dellert/The Artisans Picture Framing
Rene di Rosa
Henry T. Donahoe
Rev. Richard Fabian
J. Gordon Frierson, M.D.
Sara Garrison and Tim Bever
Charles and Susie Hanson
Mildred and Malcolm Holliday
Earl G. LeDet
Lynn A. McGowin
Marne Good &• Brian McHugh
Thomas & Janet McKinley
Charles and Nancy McLaughlin
Patricia S. Miller
Dr. & Mrs. Nicholas L. Petrakis
Phyllis Brooks Schafer
Dr. Amy R. Sims
Dr. Nancy C. Sprotte
California. FREE and OPEN TO THE
PUBLIC. Reservations recommended;
call (415) 422-635. Other programs also
available: ask for a schedule.
* ♦ *
The Silkroad Foundation presents
lectures, classes and forums at Stanford
University Inner Asia Study Center,
« 3 »
VENICE TO XANADU: MAHCO IT)EO’S SIEK HOAD
Herbst Theatre, 401 Van Ness Street (at McAllister), San Francisco
FRIDAY, May 4 8:00 pm-10:I5 pm VENICE TO XANADU
5:30-7:30 PM Speakers Dinners open to HW Sponsors, Patrons and Fellows: see order form page 7
8:00 pm S. Frederick Starr (The Nitze School Central Asian Institute, )ohns Hopkins University)
Rediscover the Silk Road Today
9:15 PM Musical Legacies of the Silk Road
Guest performers take us from 14th century Venice to the inner reaches of Asia. The exotic instruments,
melodies and costumes rediscovered evoke the wonders Marco Polo and other early European trav-
elers may have experienced on the journey to China six hundred years ago.
Music From Marco Polo's Venice Cheryl Ann Fulton (medieval harps), Roy Wheldon (vielle). Kit Higgin-
son (recorder, psaltry), Peter Maund (percussion): medieval estampies and saltarellos, an instrumental
version of a lauda, and pieces from Francesco Landini.
Dance From Central Asia Laurel Victoria Gray (Silk Road Dance Company) dazzles with traditional
rhythms and movement.
Throat Singing From Tuva: world music master Paul Pena first brought this amazing art to the world's
attention in the movie "Genghis Blues."
SATURDAY, May 5 1 0:00 am-4:00 pm
10:00 AM Albert E. Dien (Stanford University)
MARCO POLO’S SILK ROAD
Mummies to Marco Polo: Perspectives on the Silk Road
1 1 : 1 0 AM Morris Rossabi (Columbia University) Marco Polo and other Early Travelers to China
Noon-1 :30 PM BREAK for lunch: to reserve your place at Friends Luncheon see page 7
1:30 PM Laurel Victoria Gray (Director, Silk Road Dance Company, Washington, DC)
Traditional Costume, Music and Dance from Central Asia
2:40 pm Lauren Arnold (independent scholar)
The Exchange of Princely Gifts Across the Silk Road
3:35 PM Panel Discussion
Did Marco Polo really reach China?
RETHINK YOUR GIVING—
CONSIDER STOCKS AS A DONATION.
Contribute some of your holdings to Humanities West. You get
a tax deduction for their full current value and avoid capital
gains tax and commission charges! Talk to your broker about it!
Traditional Costume, Dance and
Music From Central Asia
1 :30 PM Saturday at Herbst Theatre
The sumptuous costuming and spirited dance
traditions of Silk Road cultures are a vital part of
world dance history and practice. The visual feast
of historically accurate costumes displayed in
this lecture/demonstration include Azerbaijani,
Tadjik, Kurdish, and Bukharan. Laurel Victoria Gray
(Artistic Director, Silk Road Dance Company Washington,
DC) collected authentic embroidery and weaving on her
travels to the East; her costumes reflect painstaking efforts
to preserve traditional dress in the face of rapid change
due to exposure to the West. Dancers model the costumes
and demonstrate dance movements from each region.
« 4 »
SUGGESTED READING FOR SILK ROAD:
Books in print on this list are available or can be ordered from A Clean Well Lighted Place for Books in Opera Plaza. Other books
should be easily found at a university or public library. For a more extensive bibliography visit www.silk-road.com.
Arnold, Lauren. Papal Gifts and Princely Treasures: Tfie
Transasian Mission to China and its Influence on the Art of
the'^est 1250-1350. USF-Ricci Institute.
Kalter, lohannes. The arts and crafts of Turkestan. New York:
Thames and Hudson, 1984, cl983.
Uzbekistan: heirs to the silk road / edited by lohannes Kalter
and Margareta Pavaloi; with contributions by
M. Pavaloi ... let al.]. London; New York: Thames
and Hudson, 1997.
Harvey, lanet. Traditional textiles of central Asia. New York, N.Y.: Thames and Hudson, 1996.
Hansen, Henny Harald. Mongol costumes. London; New York: Thames and Hudson; Copenhagen: Rhodos International Science
and Art Publishers, 1993.
Ikats: woven silks from Central Asia: the Rau collection. Oxford; New York: B. Blackwell, in Co-operation with the crafts Council, ( 1988)
Gibbon, Kate Fitz. Ikat: splendid silks of Central Asia: The Guido Goldman collection / Kate Fitz Gibbon & Andrew Hale. Boston:
Museum of Fine Arts, 1997 (There’s a big expensive version of this and a smaller, cheaper version pub. in connection with
the travelling exhibit)
TRAVEL THE ANCIENT SILK ROAD
This 15-day tour follows the footsteps of the great
adventurers, archaeologists and Buddhist monks
along the ancient silk road. The caravan routes cross
unrelenting deserts with mirages, lush oases, breath-
taking mountain passes and gulches in remote parts of
China. View magnificent art and archaeological wonders,
meet a diversity of tribes. Visit Xian; Lanzhou; study the
world's largest and richest Buddhist art treasury with
miles of ancient paintings; enter Chinese Turkestan-, see
ethnic art in Urumqi.
Escorted by William D. Y. Wu, Ph.D. (Art and Archae-
ology, Princeton), who has escorted groups to China for
the Museums of Fine and Modern Art of San Francisco,
of San Francisco Mayor's Cultural Delegation; and United
Nations Association, among others.
Presented by Travel Directions. Includes a donation to
For more information, call 415/391-9700.
Nomads of Eurasia / edited by Vladimir N. Basilov ...Los
Angeles, Calif.: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles
County; Seattle, Wash.: Distributed by University of
Washington Press, cl 989. 191 p.
The Silk Road — An Ancient Road to Central Asia pub. in 1993 by
Three Gorges Publishing House, (published in China so
much of the English text is ludicrous, but great pictures!
Travels in the Orient, 1« the Footsteps of Marco Polo. Cheneviere,
Alain Konecky & Konecky, NY, 1997.
Sogdian Painting by Guitty Azarpay
When Silk was Gold a museum catalogue pub. by the
Cleveland Museum of Art and the Met.
Max Tilke Costume Patterns and Designs. An earlier
edition of this book has been put up on the web:
Beyond The Silk Road: Arts of Central Asia from the
Powerhouse Museum Collection in Sydney
Blount, Wilfrid. The Golden Road to Samarkand. The Viking
Press, NY, 1973
Marco Polo and the Discovery of the Western World, lohn Lamer.
The Book ofSer Marco Polo the Venetian Concerning the Kingdoms
and Marvels of the East. 1926. Ed., trans., notes by Colonel
Sir Henry Yule, RE CB. London.
« 5 »
Two Notes — One Throat
In the late '80s, while searching for a lan-
guage program on shortwave radio, Paul
Pena happened upon the didgeridoo-like
wail of traditional Tuvan throat-singing.
Infatuated, the blind singer searched for
seven years before anyone could explain
what he'd heard. Once identified, the
longtime bluesman taught himself the
ancient Asian art form. The placement
of one's tongue, sometimes curled at the
top of your mouth as if pronouncing an
'L' creates the harmonics that enable two
notes at once. "Your tongue is just sitting
on a fence while the sound moves
around it," he explains.
...the Oscar-nominated documentary
Genghis Blu^s... chronicled Pena's journey
to Tuva (a country near Mongolia that's
now a part of Russia) for a throat-singing
competition — Paul Pena won in two
categories and earned the nickname
"Earthquake" for his deep, piercing sound.
Tuvan isn't the only language Paul
Pena's fiddled with. Born in Massachu-
setts to a family with roots in cape Verde,
Africa, Paul's musician father sent his
son to study flamenco guitar in Spain
and Portugal. Over the years, Pena has
learned Cape Verde Creole, Spanish,
Korean, Chinese, japanese and a little
Tuvan. "1 wouldn't say 1 have a perfect
memory" Pena demurs, "but it was easy
for me to remember lyrics and melody."
— excerpt from article by Neil Gladstone in
New Music November 2000
Paul Pena performs as part of “Musical
Legacies of the Silk Road"
Friday evening, May 4 at Herhst Theatre.
Friends News About Town:
“Rome in the Year One” was a sell-out Saturday February 24 at Herbst
Theatre! Speakers Luncheon and Dinner were full a month in advance of
the program. There was standing room only February 8 at the pre-program
"Walks in Rome" at the Italian Cultural Institute. Thank you for your
support, and for filling out the future program topic survey. Season ticket
raffle winners will be notified in April.
If you enjoyed the "Rome" program, you may be interested in joining the
California Classical Association, a valuable resource organization for the HW
program. Information/brochure; California Classical Association, 30 Gloria
Drive, San Rafael, CA 94901 , http://userwww.sfsu.edu/~barbaram/CCA.htm
Continued from Page 1
the Silk Road began to wither, and the
exotic trade cities along the path became
isolated and their grandeur waned.
The Silk Road was also a pathway for
new ideas and religions. It was an
"ancient information highway." The perils
of this long journey were endured as a
means to an end. ..devotion soothed the
travails of crossing mountains and
desert. Beyond geography, there was
weather and pirates. Caravans of up
to 1000 camels were thus a safety
measure. Caravansarais were stationed
along the way at about 25-km intervals,
which would have been the daily travel
Items travelling along this route
included from the west were gold,
textiles, saffron, cucumbers, pome-
granates, peaches, melons, wine and
colored glass, as well as peaches from
Samarkand, horses from Ferghana, dwarf
jugglers from Persia and the magical
"camel bird" (ostrich) from China came
ceramics, cinnamon, rhubarb, bronze,
paper, printing, gunpowder and of
Marco Polo has become an icon for
the Silk Road because he was the first to
record his travels to China and the court
of Kublai Khan. When he returned to
Venice, he was given the command of a
galley dispatched with a Venetian fleet to
repel the Genoese. He was taken
prisoner and taken to Genoa, where
he was able to dictate the story of
his adventures to a fellow prisoner,
Rustichello, who was a writer from Pisa.
Marco Polo has thus eclipsed his uncles
Maffeo and another Marco, and his
father Niccolo. The elder Polos travelled
to the East twice while Marco only once.
The following excerpt is from his
book: "...and at the end of your journey
you arrive at the very great and noble
city of YANIU (Yang-chau), which has
seven-and-twenty other wealthy cities
under its administration; so that this
Yanju is, you see, a city of great impor-
tance. It is the seat of one of the Great
Kaan's Twelve Barons, for it has been
chosen to be one of the Twelve Sings. The
people are Idolaters and use paper-
money, and are subject to the Great
Kaan. And Messer Marco Polo himself, of
whom this book speaks, did govern this
city for three full years, by the order of
the Great Kaan. The people live by trade
and manufactures, for a great amount of
harness for knights and men-at-arms is
made there. And in this city and its
neighbourhood a large number of troops
are stationed by the Kaan's orders. There
is no more to say about it..."
« 6 »
HUIVLAINI 1 1C.3 WMi
57 Post Street, Suite 814
San Francisco, CA 94104
i 1 AWl '
FAX 4 15/39 1-9708
Meet our fascinating lecturers
at the Speakers’ Dinner at
Sponsors, Patrons and Fellows of Humanities
y^est are invited to join program speakers
for the Humanities West Season Opening
Night dinner on Friday evening. May 4,
at Stars Restaurant in their private
Banquet Room. This excellent restaurant
is located at 555 Golden Gate Avenue,
within easy walking distance of Herbst
Theatre. We will convene at the restau-
rant at 5:30 p.m.
Meet our Speakers at Indigo
during the Friends' Luncheon
Indigo serves delicious food in a sophis-
ticated setting. All Friends of Humanities
W^st are cordially invited to join us on
Saturday, May 5, between the morning
and afternoon sessions of the program.
Indigo is at 687 McAllister Street, near
Gough, a short block-and-a-half behind
Herbst Theatre. Guests will have a
chance to share a table and break bread
with speakers and fellow Humanities
West supporters. This is a popular
event — R^s^rv^ early as space is limited!
Humanities West offers ticket discounts
to groups of 10 or more, and other
privileges if the group includes a Friend
of Humanities West. Past groups include
Delta Sigma Theta, Harvard Club, and
Fordham Alumni Association.
HW Encourages Student Groups:
The Institute for European Studies, U.C.
Berkeley frequently underwrites tickets
so that participants, usually student
teachers, may attend HW programs at
no cost. Other area colleges and univer-
sities partially underwrite ticket costs for
students or teachers; and several Friends
of HW who are professors have ordered
tickets for classes to qualify for group
If you are affiliated with a learning
institution that may be interested in
helping subsidize tickets to HW pro-
grams, or want to order tickets for a
group and receive a discount, please call
Speakers' Dinner and Friends Luncheon Reservations Form
for the Silk Road program
EH Yes, 1 am a Sponsor, Patron or Fellow of Humanities West and would like to
attend the Speakers' Dinner.
Please reserve place(s) in my name for dinner Friday night. May 4, at
STARS, 555 Golden Gate, at 5:30 p.m. Enclosed is my check, payable to
Humanities West, for $55 per person.
EH Yes, 1 am a Friend of Humanities West and would like to attend the Friend's Luncheon.
Please reserve place(s) in my name for luncheon at INDIGO, 687
McAllister Street, on Saturday, May 5th. Enclosed is a check, payable to
Humanities West, for $45 per person.
A letter of confirmation will he sent approximately two weeks prior to the event.
CITY, STATE, ZIP
Please return this form to Humanities West, 57 Post Street, Suite 814, San Francisco,
CA 94 1 04. Please make check payable to Humanities West. Telephone; 4 1 5/39 1 -9700
PRIORITY TICKET ORDER FORM:
VENICE TO XANADU: Marco Polo's Silk Road
May 4 and 5, 2001.
Please order your tickets as soon as possible. Donors will receive priority until March 28th.
Please include a self-addressed, stamped envelope and mail to City Box Office with your order.
Tickets will be mailed approximately 4 weeks prior to the program.
FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL CITY BOX OFFICE 415/392-4400
INDIVIDUAL TICKETS Marco Polo's Silk Road May 4 and 5, 2001
ALL SEATING Orchestra/Dress Circle/Grand Tier
Friday & Saturday May 4-5
X = $
mail/fax order fee per ticket
X = $
Friday May 4, 8;00 pm- 10; 1 5 pm
X = $
Saturday May 5, 10:00 am-4:00 pm
X = $
mail/fax order fee per ticket
X = $
Student/Teacher Discount $5 per ticket (Balcony ONLY)
X = ($ )
O Enclosed is my check payable to CITY BOX OFFICE Tickets are non-refundable.
Luncheon is not included.
O Please charge my credit card;
O Visa 0 Mastercard
Expires; Mo. Year
Name on card (please print)
PLEASE MAIL THIS ORDER TO CITY BOX OFFICE,
180 Redwood St, Suite 400, San Francisco, CA 94102
Please enclose a stamped, self addressed envelope Fax orders: 415/986-041 1
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JOIN US FOR HUMANITIES WEST'S 2001-2002 SEASON
October 12-13, 2001
ONE HUNDRED YEARS
Rediscovering the Splendid Realm
Mos^s by Michelangelo
From the tomb of the high priest Userhet at Thebes:
The mother and the wife of the deceased
Antoni Gaudi: Design for the Guell Cellars
in Garraf (Barcelona)
Look for your preferred seating season order form in the mail in May or June.
57 Post Street, Suite 814
San Francisco, CA 94104
-> ! rU&L OLICCL, OUILC
San Francisco, CA 94104